Autoimmune (MS, RA, SLE, T1DM, IBD, uveitis)
MSC-Exosomes are a promising, cell-free treatment strategy (through “immunomodulatory effect… primarily attribute to the paracrine pathway”), according to Shen et al., who say that “autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type-1 diabetes (T1DM), uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).” Riazifar et al., through assessing the “effect of exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in treating multiple scelerosis using an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model”, and found “evidence that MSC-derived exosomes can potentially serve as cell-free therapies in creating a tolerogenic immune response to treat autoimmune and central nervous system disorders”.
Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the leading autoimmune disorders, which on a whole affect nearly a quarter of the population of wealthy countries in the world. Zhang et al. state that, “according to many recent studies, EVs participate in immunomodulation…” and “In addition, EVS have great potential in the diagnosis and therapy of automimmune diseases.” Later in 2021, Payandeh et al. concluded, “on the whole, making use of exosomes can be deemed to be effective, unique, and safe therapeutic method so as to the treatment of arthritis.”, and they include the below Figure 1 in their article with a proposed mechanism.