Traumatic Brain Injury
"An estimated 1.7 million people sustain TBI each year in the United States, and more than 5 million people are coping with disabilities from TBI at an annual cost of more than $76 billion." Claim Xiong et al., going on further in their article to state, "developing
a cell-free exosome-based therapy for TBI may open up a variety of means to deliver targeted regulatory genes (miRNAs) to enhance multifaceted aspects of neuroplasticity and to amplify neurological recovery, potentially for a variety of neural injuries and neurodegenerative diseases", though they admit that further investigation is required.
Ghosh et al., also state, "The advantages that make exosomes superior over other therapy include the following: (1) exosomes can cross the blood-brain barrier, are less invasive, are less or not tumorigenic, and are less or not immunogenic, (ii) their shelf life and half-life are longer in patients, which is good for long-term storage without any loss of function, and (iii) they do not replicate or induce microvascular embolism. Finally, we envision that this approach has much potential for therapy of TBI patients in near future." For convenience, a representation included in their article is given below (Figure 1).